By Leslie Aiello
An anthropologist and an anatomist have mixed their abilities during this publication to supply scholars and study staff with the necessities of anatomy and the capacity to use those to investigations into hominid shape and serve as. utilizing uncomplicated ideas and proper bones, conclusions might be reached in regards to the possible musculature, stance, mind measurement, age, weight, and intercourse of a selected fossil specimen. this kind of deductions that are attainable are illustrated by means of reference again to modern apes and people, and a coherent photo of the heritage of hominid evolution appears to be like. Written in a transparent and concise type and fantastically illustrated, An creation to Human Evolutionary Anatomy is a simple reference for all fascinated about human evolution in addition to a helpful significant other to either laboratory functional classes and new learn utilizing fossil skeletons
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Extra info for An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy
Radius; Fern. Tro. Tro. = great trochanter; Tib. = tibia; Fib. = fibula; h. = head; p. = proximal; d. = distal. 31 AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY There are different 'classes of levers that are defined depending upon the different arrangements of the fulcrum, force arm and load arm (Fig. 11). First class levers have the fulcrum positioned between the force arm and the load arm. The usual example of a first class lever that is most easily conceived is a see-saw. First class levers are used in balancing weight and/or changing the direction of pull.
In other words, it either develops surrounded by a connective tissue 'membrane' among a cluster of cells that produce a matrix which then subsequently mineralizes or, more usually, it replaces a cartilaginous precursor of the bone whose shape already resembles the bone in some crude way. e. ) A useful way of describing the microanatomy of bone is to follow these two processes of ossification through and then to describe the various remodelling processes that eventually result in the typical histologi cal picture we recognize in cut sections of adult bone as well as on the surfaces of bone.
The medial pterygoid plate forms part of the bony frame work for the muscles of the pharynx and soft palate. A small hook, the pterygoid hamulus, turns outwards at the lower extremity of the medial pterygoid plate. Between the roots of the pterygoid plates at their origin from the body of the sphenoid bone there is a small shallow scalloped depression called the scaph oid fossa where a muscle of the soft palate takes origin before it drops down and winds around the hamulus into the palate. The significance of these bony landmarks associ ated with the medial pterygoid plate are discussed in Chapter 13.
An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy by Leslie Aiello