By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill
Ebook by means of Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen
Read Online or Download Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth PDF
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Extra resources for Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth
10. While GPAs are available for the NLSY79, we do not report them here because making comparisons across time may be problematic due to possible differences in grading (not necessarily performance) over time. Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores (not adjusted by age) are available for the 1979 cohort, while ASVAB scores (adjusted by age) are available for the 1997 cohort. Because the AFQT and ASVAB are not directly comparable, we also do not examine changes over time for these tests. 11.
Achievement differences between the best and worst students would add to these effects by a few additional weeks. 6 also show that differences in education and test scores account for only modest parts of the differences observed in labor market outcomes across racial groups in the NLSY97 data. Among men, education and achievement can account for about a third of wage and weeks-worked differences by race; among women, they account for less than a third of observed differences in weeks worked. 23 The finding implies that scholastic achievement is only one of several important mechanisms through which young blacks are disadvantaged in the labor market.
2. Ethnographic work suggests that employers perceive a stronger work ethic among Hispanics, especially immigrants; while they perceive more negative attitudes among young blacks and especially males (Wilson 1996). Fear of crime and violence, especially from those with criminal records, also appears to contribute to the problem. There is some evidence that employers who do not conduct formal criminal background checks engage in broad statistical discrimination against young black men as they seek to avoid hiring exoffenders (Holzer, Offner, and Sorensen 2005).
Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth by Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill