By Edwin A. Lyon
Recipient of the 1994 Anne B. and James B. McMillan Prize
This entire examine offers a background of latest Deal archaeology within the Southeast within the Nineteen Thirties and early Nineteen Forties and specializes in the tasks of the Federal Emergency reduction management, the Civil Works management, the Works development management, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the nationwide Park provider, and the Smithsonian Institution.
using basic assets together with correspondence and unpublished experiences, Lyon demonstrates the nice value of the recent Deal tasks within the heritage of southeastern and North American archaeology. New Deal archaeology remodeled the perform of archaeology within the Southeast and created the root for the self-discipline that exists this day. With the present emphasis on curation and repatriation, archaeologists and historians will locate this quantity important in reconstructing the background of the initiatives that generated the various collections that now fill our museums.
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Additional info for A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology
Gerard Fowke (1855-1933) excavated a kitchen midden and mounds at Town Creek in 1924. He found no stratification to indicate that the site had been occupied by different cultures at different times. Fowke had more than twenty years of experience in archaeology in Siberia, the Hawaiian Islands, Canada, the West, Midwest, and South. He had worked for the American Museum of Natural History and the Missouri Historical Society. 35 Fowke would later work in the Red River Valley in Louisiana in 1926 surveying areas of north Louisiana and excavating mounds at Marksville for three months.
So in March 1933 in the United States "the fog of despair hung over the land. One out of every four American workers lacked a job. Factories that had once darkened the skies with smoke stood ghostly and silent, like extinct volcanoes. "4 Franklin D. Roosevelt had been elected president in November 1932 and was inaugurated in March 1933. To cope with massive unemployment during the depression, Roosevelt created a number of relief agencies. The first was the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) established in May 1933 with $500 million to put the unemployed to work.
41 Moore used the expertise of disciplines related to archaeology in analysis of his data. He reported on chemical analysis of copper artifacts, proving they were made by Native Americans and not Europeans. 48 William Henry Holmes studied pottery recovered by Moore, and Ales Hrdlicka studied the human skeletons. Moore consulted a zoologist for information on aboriginal dogs. 49 In his work in sand mounds of the St. John's River in Florida Moore recognized stratification. He was aware of work in the kitchen middens of Europe.
A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology by Edwin A. Lyon