By Maurice Winternitz

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Projectile Points An important question concerns the presence of fluting in South America, a trait classically used to suggest a Clovis origin (Lynch 1974), although other models of projectile points exhibiting wide distributions are also important (Bryan 1986; Mayer-Oakes 1986a; Dillehay 2000). But fluting in South America “appears almost exclusively on stemmed points, not lanceolate forms” (Dillehay et al. 1992: 146), which is an important technological difference between the two continents. Variation is evident in many regions, especially in northwestern South America (Dillehay et al.

Other point morphologies are found in Venezuela, where several sites, including Taima Taima and Muaco (Cruxent 1970; Ochsenius and Gruhn 1979), exhibit willow-leaf projectile points. A well-known shape is that of the so-called Fishtail, or Fell’s Cave projectile point, initially found by Junius Bird in the Palli Aike region, in Chile. Fishtail points have since been recorded at several sites in Patagonia, including Piedra Museo and Cueva del Medio, and at localities around 38 degrees south latitude in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile (Flegenheimer 1986; Nuñez et al.

A volume on the archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (Straus et al. 1996) examined worldwide human responses to global environmental changes. ” Indeed, some of the adaptations indicated by recent analyses of culturally associated remains from the earliest known sites in South America are very expensive, implying that energy was extracted from resources that were difficult to obtain or process, such as seeds (see O’Connell and Hawkes 1981), or very dispersed, such as plants and birds.

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A History of Indian Literature. Vol. I. by Maurice Winternitz

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