By M. Bacon
This ebook introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading 3D seismic facts. the subjects it covers comprise easy structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by way of specialist geophysicists with a long time of operating event within the oil undefined, the publication may be fundamental for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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K notch filter to remove pattem causedby the acquisition 25. FXY deconvolution 26. 5 m bin grid 27. g. ) 28. One pass steep dip 3-D time migration (using time and spatially varying velocity field) 29. Zero-phaseconversionby matching to wells 30. Spectralequalisation 31. Bandpasslilter 32. Residualscaling Fig. 21 Typical 3-D processingsequence. that was createdby the sourceand convertsit to a more compactform. Sucha sourcesignalis undesirablesinceevery reflectionwould be followed by a smallerrepetitionof itself.
Seismic sourcescannotbe zero-phasesince that would imply output before time zero. This has the maximum amount offronFloading of the waveletpossiblefor any given amplitude spectrum. During processingthe data are conveftedto zero-phase. To combatthis, if the zero-phase chosen,thenoneneedsto accountfor thephasedistortionwith depthby alsoapplying a deabsorptionfilter. Thus,the waveletremainsminimum-phase(but sinceit is not a constantphase theentiresectionlater wavelet,its changewith depthmakesit impossibleto zero-phase on).
Owing to the cost this is not routinelyappliedat present,but with theever-reducing costof computerpowerand the desirefor higher-frequency datafor improvedinterpretationit is becomingmore common. 46 - andplocessing 3-Dseismic dataacquisition Fig, 2,31 Seismic migration. During seismic data recording the reflectjon from point A will be recordedby a coincident sourceand receiverat location B. It will be plotted on a stackedsectionas a point A* vertically below B with distancegiven by length AB. Migration movesthe point back to its subsurlacereflection point and plots it vertically below point C, thus giving a sectionthat looks more like a cross-sectionthrough the earth.
3-D Seismic Interpretation by M. Bacon